Lhasa tibetan guide

Lhasa tibetan guide

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བོད་ 西藏 Tibet 

Tibet History 

Long time ago, the tibet plateau was a boundless sea. A large piece of continental plate on orogenic movement drifting from the south met together with the  European please. Here from, a large street of highland was uplifted on the earth.  This region is today with high altitude and cold wether had once been a subtropical zone of forest and grassland with a warm, humid climate and low altitude, which provided a profitable condition for ancient human beings to live and multiply in this land.  The scientists  research indicates that there are clear differences in the places of ancient human bings activities in tibet at different ages. The cultural remains at the earlier stage were mainly discovered in the west and north of Qinghai tibet pleater, which also are the earlier uplifted areas.  But  the cultural remains at  the later stage where mainly distributed in the east and middle part of the Qinghai-tibet plateau.  That is so the ancient human being in the Qinghai-tibet plateau firstly originated and activated in todays high altitude areas.  


Before  the 7th century, there were many tribes in the Tibet.  Wars broke our as the tribes tried to scramble  for their domains.  Amon them, the tube time which own the large number of rich croplands, and pastureland in the reaches of Yarlung Tsangpo River, gradually rose and developed.  The earliest capital city of Tubo was in todays’s Yongbu Leaking in Nedong County, Lhoka prefecture.  After Namri songster, the thirty second king of Tubo Tribe, took power, he consolidated and developed the Tubo’s territory. Later, in order to avoid the internal opposite forces, Namri Songtsen moved the capital from Nedong to Gym area, located in todays’s Medrok Gongkar county, and build the Gyama Palace. 


In the early 7th century, Songtsen Gampo, son of Namri Songtsen, succeeded to the throne.  He completed his father’s cause by achieving unification of the Tibet Plateau and set up the Buddhistic, the Tubo Dynasty in the history of Tibet. 


In order to consolidate the newly established regime, Songtsen Gampo adopted a series of important meausres.  For instance in 633, he moved the capital of Tubo Dynasty to Lhasa, build the Potala Palace.  Gradually, Lhasa becomes the economic, political and cultural center of the Tubo Dynasty.  To consolidate his regime, Songtsan Gampo introduced the advanced practice of the Tang Dansty and set up a system of civil and military officials, appointed officials, sent military officials to station at different garrison, and divide administrative areas and so on.  He divided the administrative areas of Tubointo 18 big areas and established 5 big Ruchens,  (Ru is Tibetan words, that means area in that time).  Every Ruchen was divided into upper and lower branch of Ru, and each branch of Ru had 5000 families these families are civilian as well as militery during the war.   Meanwhile, he strengths the system of discussing issues with alliance which had been used in the history of Tubo to strengthen his power.  He also reduced taxes, developed agricultural production and promoted economic prosperity.  He sent people to ancient India to learn scripts and created the written Tibetan language and calendar, which made great contribution to the cultrural development of Tubo, he was the king who build the Jokang Temple and Ramoche Temple in tibet. 


Songster Gampo’s time witnessed the development peak of the Tubo Dynasty.   In order to develop relationship with neighboring countries, on the one hand he sent envoys to Nepal first and then to the Tang Dynasty to make and offer of marriage.  And on the other hand, he expanded territories with strong armed forces.  With the territories expanding Tuguhun to the north, four towns including Guizi, yutain and yang  to the west and countries like Nanzhao and Dash to the east, the Tubo kingdom had become the strongest military power in the west of china since Qin and Han Dynasty.  


Songtsen Gampo is the most important and well-known Tibetan king in the history of Tibet.   In 650 songster Gmpo passed away.  Since then, the Tubo Dynasty gradually declined, because of many different reason, during he time of king Trisong Detsan, he  fought wars for years with other countries and went in for larger scale construction, people’s burden was increased with caused deepening of social contradictions and led to successive turmoil.  In 823, because big aristrocrats of the Tubo Dynasty fought for power with each other, the society was in turmoil. Slaves launched a large scale uprising and gives severe below to rule of slaveowners.  Since th, the Tubo Dynasty throughly collapsed, but the king Trisong Detsan was the one who build the first monastery in tibet which is well know by everyone call Samye Monastery.


During the yuan Dynasty, Tibet was officially incorporated into mainland China and finished the long term separation .  The Tibetan peoples obtained stable social environment.  In Ming and Qing Dynasty, the centerial government of china strengthened its administration over Tibet.  In the modern history , the Tibetan people together with the chinese people of all nationalities fought against the imperialist invasion and maintained unification of the motherland.  


On may 23rd, 1951, the central people’s Government of China and the local government of tibet reached and agreement on measures of the peaceful liberation of Tibet. In February 1952 the military command of Tibet was officially setup.  In April 1956, Tibet Autonomous region was established.  From then on the development of tibet came into a new age of overall prosperity. 



local in front of Jokoang Temple
local in front of Jokoang Temple

Population 

The population in Tibet autonomous region is over 2.8 million. It is the smallest and least densely populated provincial are in China . Tibetan are accounted for 94.7% of the Toal population of the region.  

   The distribution of population in Tibet is unbalanced.  Four prefectures and one municipality in the Southeast o Tibet , namely, chamdo, Nuyingchi Lhoka, Shigatse and Lhasa, which make up 42% of the land area but 85% of the population in the whole region.  The two northwestern areas, Nakchu and Ngari, make up 58% of the land area, but only 15% of the population of the region. 


Religion 

11th century figure of shakmuni buddha
11th century figure of shakmuni buddha

Tibet is regarded as a holy place of the Buddhism.  Most of the Tibetan people believe in Tibetan Buddhism and Bon religion.  Buddhism was first started in 7th century and flourished  in different century, minority of tibet believes in christinaity and islamic religion.



People 

people
people

Tibetan is an ethnic autonomous region where Tibetans are the main ethnic group and there are also other ethnic minority groups such as Hui, Monica, Phobia, and Salo Sherpa people, Tang people who haven’t been identified as ethnic groups due to their small population which is only about 2,000.


special food rice and dry fruits
special food rice and dry fruits

Diet and specialities

information on tibet and Tibetan Diet and food , The Tibetan Plateau is located in central Asia, bordered by India and Nepal in the southeast; Bhutan in the south; and a number of Chinese provinces in the north and the east. Population: 2.84 million in the Tibet Autonomous Region, 5.5 million in all ethnic Tibetan regions in China Area: 1.2 million sq km in the Tibet Autonomous Region, 2.5 million sq km in all contiguous ethnic Tibetan areas in China (approximately the size of Western Europe) Average elevation: 4,900m Terrain: 70% grassland, with forested areas in the lower elevations and tall mountain ranges at higher elevations Climate: Warm in the summer (avg. 28C), cold in the winter (-15C), and extremely dry (except during the rainy season in July and August) Languages: Tibetan and Chinese Economy: agriculture, animal husbandry and business Livelihoods: Most Tibetans are farmers and nomads, though Tibetans who live in larger towns or cities work in a variety of different jobs. Religions: Tibetan Buddhism, Bon (the indigenous religion of Tibet), and Islam (practiced by a number of different minority groups and only a handful of ethnic Tibetans) Main crops: barley, wheat, buckwheat, rye, potatoes, and assorted fruits and vegetables Main livestock: sheep, cattle, goats, yaks, dzo, horses, and camels Native wildlife: Tibetan antelope, wild yak, wild ass and Tibetan argali, blue sheep, black-necked crane, Tibetan gazelle, giant panda, red panda, golden monkey Main handicrafts: carpets, hats, jewelry, wooden items, clothing, quilts, fabrics World Heritage Sites: the Potala Palace (Lhasa) and the Norbulingka Summer Palace (Lhasa)

Traditional cuisine: roasted barley flour (tsampa), steamed dumplings (momo), noodle soup (thukpa), yak meat, goat meat, mutton, jerky, potatoes, yak yogurt (sho), butter and cheese

Tibetan Food Tibetan cuisine is not renowned for its spices and variety, but it is hearty and healthy and sustains those living on the high plateau. Most Tibetan dishes include generous portions of dairy and meat, but these days more and more young people eat vegetarian. Here are some of our most common dishes.


Tsampa
Tsampa

Tsampa 

Tsampa is the unofficial food of the Tibetan people. It is made from dried barley flour, which is then added to a cup of butter tea. The flour and the tea are mixed together to form a ball of dough. Some like to add bits of dry cheese as well as sugar to the dough. No trip to Tibet is complete without sampling tsampa, the most important traditional staple food in tibet is Tsampa, which is made from the roasted barley flour.


butter tea
butter tea

Butter Tea

Tibetans are famous for their heavy yak butter tea. Nomads drink cup after cup of butter tea daily, as it is filling and keeps the

m warm. In some regions, a bit of salt is added to the tea. While many foreigners balk at the idea of drinking butter tea, it is tasty if you think of it as a kind of soup.

Milk Tea Tibetans in central Tibet enjoy drinking sweet milk tea, known as ja ngarmo. The sweet tea is similar to British milk tea, and many visitors to Tibet enjoy the drink. However, Tibetans in the eastern regions of Amdo and Kham prefer plain milk tea or salty milk tea.


Tibetan Noodle

Tibetan noodle is made of highland barley and cooled with yak meat soup. A scrumptious breakfast consists of Tibetan noodle with spoons of pepper sauce, meat pancakes on the side, and a cup of sweet tea.



Tibetan Dry yak meat

Yak meat is eaten in nearly every Tibetan family. It is similar in taste to beef, but is a healthy alternative as it has twice the protein and half the fat of a skinless chicken breast. The meat is sweet and delicious tasting.